Until Instron Structural Testing Systems (Canton, MA) added a modular pitching unit to its servo-hydraulic crash sled, there was no non-destructive method to test the effect of pitching—the lift and roll of the rear of the vehicle in a frontal crash—on occupants. The pitching assembly consists of upper and lower sleds connected arms. The test buck mounts to the upper sled, while the lower one rides on the standard rail system. Each pitching rail attaches to a vertical actuator that delivers more than 400 kN of force and 3m/s velocity. A typical test lasts 120 milliseconds.