The Michigan Assembly Plant is building the Ford Focus in two body styles at present. One of the ways that they’re producing cars with different trim levels in an efficient manner, says James Tetreault, vice president of North America Manufacturing, is through the use of parts kitting. “We have some rather unique employee-designed kitting, especially in the trim shop,” he says. For example, there is a canvas bag that resembles an over-the-door shoe bag that fashionistas use to organize their footwear, but in this case, the individual pouches are filled with components for a specific vehicle and the bag hangs off the front bumper of the car being assembled.
Inside Ford’s Michigan Assembly Plant, where some 80% of the robotic equipment in the body shop can be readily reprogrammed to accommodate the assembly of different vehicles, thereby assuring flexibility without the historic shutdowns that have been characteristic of plants predicated on fixed tooling for locating and clamping.
A Mazda body side line in Japan. It was during a visit to Hiroshima that Tetreault and his colleagues saw a flexible locating line, which led them to work on a means by which they could flexibly locate and clamp sheet metal for assembly operations.
In addition to the standard, gasoline-powered Focus, they’re adding production of the Focus Electric to Michigan Assembly. They’re also going to be producing two five-passenger multi-activity vehicles, the C-MAX Hybrid and the C-MAX Energi, shown here, a plug-in hybrid.
According to James Tetreault, Ford vice president of North America Manufacturing, in addition to spot welding, they’re using other technologies, like laser welding. This is the European Ford Mondeo. Tetreault points out that thanks to the use of laser brazing, there is no ditch joint where the body side meets the roof. They are also considering other assembly technologies, such as self-piercing rivets and adhesives. “Several things are under consideration for the future, as we try to figure out how to meet fuel-efficiency standards. A lot of it depends on what the car is going to be made of—high-strength steel, aluminum, carbon fiber or some other plastic materials?”
James Tetreault, Ford vice president, North America Manufacturing, is part of an undertaking that represents a massive change within the Ford manufacturing footprint, one that is providing the vehicle manufacturer with the kind of assembly flexibility that would have been admired by the highly practical and pragmatic Henry Ford, despite his legendary focus on efficiency at the cost of flexibility (“…any color so long as it’s black”).
Flexibility—thanks to technological innovation—is now practical. And what’s more pragmatic than using your assembly line to build what customers want?
Historically, automotive assembly plants have had limited flexibility, especially in the body shop, as a consequence of using fixed tooling to locate, clamp, and—although this is essentially no longer the case—weld vehicles. What’s more, there had been a tendency for locating holes on the sheet metal to be positioned in varying places between models, which mean that it was difficult, at best, for different cars to be run down the same line, particularly in the era of hard tooling.
So at Ford they are making changes in order to handle variety along the line, and Tetreault points out that this isn’t simply a matter of the manufacturing engineers getting more clever at what they do: speaking of the ability to assembly B/C or C/D cars on the same line, he says, “We’ve got to get the locators—the master control holes—for the sheet metal within a certain envelope in order to design flexible tooling. We’ve been working hand-in-hand with our engineering and product engineering teams to do that.”
Flexibility is a team undertaking.
And members of that team can include suppliers, as well. Tetreault says, “We’ve had to invent a number of new assembly processes for sheet metal, the most important of which is called a ‘PLU,’ a programmable locating unit, which we co-invented with a supplier, Fanuc Robotics” (fanucrobotics.com).
Tetreault walks through the main elements in a body shop process:
1. Locating the sheet metal components with the master control holes in the precise orientation for clamping.
“Welding has been flexible for a long time—we’ve had weld guns on the ends of robots for 35 to 40 years,” he says. If there is a difference in that regard, it is that they’re using more robots than ever before, with “very, very few fixed welding guns.” Why? “The reason is simple: with a mix of models in one plant, we want to be able to switch programs and not have tooling specifically designed for one model.”
But this leaves points 1 and 2, the locating and clamping. In addition to having the locating holes being positioned in consistent areas, there is the additional need to be able to find those holes. He recalls visiting Mazda in Hiroshima and seeing what he describes as “the first high-speed or high-volume version of flexible locating.” This system was based on small robots that had pins on their end effectors to mate with the master locating holes. This provided the means by which there could be variation in vehicle size, as the robots could move as needed. “We looked at that and figured that if we got to flexible clamping, we’d get to a fully flexible body shop; we wouldn’t need to hard-tool anything. That’s what we’ve been working on: clamping sheet metal. That’s a little more difficult than it sounds. You’ve got complex surfaces on sheet metal on parts you want to clamp. There is a lot more variability on surfaces that need to be clamped from model to model than a master control hole for locating sheet metal,” he says. Lining up holes is one thing. Holding together sheet metal with fluidic forms is quite another.
So that led to the development of the PLUs, which allows locating and clamping. The initial application was at the Ford Cuautitlán Stamping and Assembly Plant in Mexico, where the Ford Fiesta is produced. The second application is at the Michigan Assembly Plant (MAP), on the body side lines. And there will be a more extensive application at the Louisville Assembly Plant, which is expected to become Ford’s most-flexible high-volume plant in the world when it restarts production in late 2011.
At present, however, MAP is Ford’s flex facility. The company spent $550-million on retooling the facility (where they used to build products including the Ford Expedition and Lincoln Navigator, not C-segment cars), which will be the first in the world to build gas-powered, electric, hybrid, and plug-in hybrid vehicles on the same line. They’re currently building the gasoline-powered Ford Focus at the plant; the Focus Electric is slated to come on line in late 2011, and the C-MAX Hybrid and the C-MAX Energi plug-in hybrid—five-passenger multi-activity vehicles—are scheduled for production in 2012.
Tetreault acknowledges that when it comes to powertrain variants like these, “most of our competitors build them on dedicated lines in their plants.” So why all on one line at MAP? “Our goal was to be flexible on the main assembly line so that we can accommodate a shift in demand.”
That is, say they’re running 70 jobs per hour on the main line. If they had a dedicated line for hybrids, it is likely that it would be short, having a capacity on the order of 10 jobs per hour. But what if demand jumps such that they need 20 jobs per hour? He says that by doing the assembly on the main line, it is simply a matter of changing the build schedule to accommodate the increased demand for hybrids in this scenario.
What’s more, the flexible assembly provides the means by which they can add a new model—say the next-generation Focus—or even something “quite different than what we’re building there now” without shutting down and retooling the plant.